Short Story

Analysis of The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka

Summary of The Metamorphosis

The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka is a short novel first published in 1915. The story follows the life of a salesman named Gregor Samsa, who wakes up one day to find himself transformed into a giant insect. The transformation is not physically explained and seems to be a surreal and absurd event.

At first, Gregor’s family is shocked and repulsed by his appearance, but they soon grow accustomed to his presence and begin to ignore him. Gregor becomes isolated and confined to his room, and his relationship with his family deteriorates. His family members become increasingly frustrated with Gregor’s inability to work and provide for them, and they treat him as a burden.

The situation worsens when Gregor’s family decides to evict him from the apartment, as they can no longer afford to keep him. Gregor becomes even more isolated and dies, largely unnoticed by his family.

The story is often interpreted as a commentary on the dehumanization of individuals in modern society and the alienation experienced by individuals in a capitalist system. Gregor’s transformation into a bug can be seen as a symbol of his loss of identity and his descent into a state of pure existence devoid of any meaningful relationships or purpose.

In addition, the story is interpreted as a representation of the struggle between the individual and society, as Gregor’s transformation is met with rejection and hostility from those around him. The gradual deterioration of Gregor’s relationship with his family highlights how society often discards those who are seen as different or weak.

Thus, The Metamorphosis is a powerful and thought-provoking novel that explores themes of individuality, alienation, and the struggle between the individual and society. Its surreal and absurd style has made it a classic of modern literature, and its enduring popularity is a testament to Kafka’s mastery of the written word.

Thematic Analysis of The Metamorphosis

The Metamorphosis is a haunting and thought-provoking tale that explores the themes of identity, isolation, and human nature. The story begins with the protagonist, Gregor Samsa, waking up one morning to find that he has transformed into a monstrous insect-like creature. This transformation physically isolates Gregor from the rest of society and symbolizes his psychological isolation and loss of self.

Throughout the story, Gregor becomes increasingly isolated from his family and society. His family, who used to be supportive and caring, now view him as a burden and an inconvenience. They show no empathy or compassion for his condition and are only concerned about his impact on their lives. This dehumanization of Gregor represents how society often views those who are different or marginalized. Also, it highlights the importance of empathy and compassion in human relationships.

The story also explores the themes of identity and human nature. Gregor’s transformation represents a loss of self as he becomes physically and psychologically disconnected from his former identity. This raises questions about what it means to be human and whether their physical appearance or inner qualities define a person’s identity. The fact that Gregor remains sentient and self-aware throughout his transformation suggests that a person’s true identity is not defined by their physical form but by their inner qualities and experiences.

Furthermore, the story also explores the concept of isolation and its effects on the human psyche. Gregor is confined to his room and becomes physically isolated from the rest of the world, which profoundly affects his mental and emotional state. This theme is particularly relevant in today’s world, where many people feel disconnected and isolated from each other due to the rise of technology and the decline of face-to-face interactions.

The setting of the Story

The setting of “The Metamorphosis” by Franz Kafka is a small apartment in a cramped and dingy corner of a large city. The apartment is cluttered and poorly maintained, with peeling wallpaper and broken furniture. The main character, Gregor Samsa, lives in a room isolated from the rest of the apartment. The atmosphere is bleak and oppressive, reflecting the hopelessness and despair of Gregor’s situation.

The city outside the apartment is bustling and noisy, with the sounds of traffic and people filtering through the thin walls. Despite the chaos of the city, the apartment is a cocoon of solitude where Gregor is trapped in his transformation. The setting creates a sense of entrapment and suffocation, emphasizing the confinement of Gregor’s life before and after his metamorphosis.

The tone of the Story

The Metamorphosis is a dark and surreal tale that explores the alienation and dehumanization of modern society. The protagonist, Gregor Samsa, wakes up one morning to find himself transformed into a giant insect, unable to communicate or comprehend the world around him. The transformation is symbolic of the dehumanizing effects of modern life and the loss of individuality in the face of societal pressures.

The story is haunting and poignant, capturing the feeling of loneliness and isolation in the face of a rapidly changing world. Through the lens of Gregor’s transformation, Kafka offers a powerful critique of modern society and how it dehumanizes and alienates individuals. The Metamorphosis is a bleak but thought-provoking tale that will linger long after turning the final page.


The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka is a powerful allegory that uses the transformation of the protagonist, Gregor Samsa, into a bug as a symbol of human alienation and existential crisis. The bug symbolizes the loss of Gregor’s identity and humanity as he is reduced to a mere object of disgust and shame.

The dehumanization of Gregor represents the dehumanization of society and the loss of individuality in the face of societal expectations and conformity. The bug also represents society’s rejection of the individual, which turns its back on the bug, much like how community often turns its back on those who do not fit in.

Furthermore, the bug symbolizes the individual’s struggle in search of meaning and purpose in an increasingly indifferent and hostile world. In conclusion, the metamorphosis is a powerful representation of the human condition, capturing the essence of alienation, existential crisis, and the search for identity and purpose.


In the story, the protagonist Gregor Samsa wakes up one day to find himself transformed into a monstrous insect. Despite the physical change, Gregor remains the same caring and hardworking individual. Yet, his family and society reject and ignore him, highlighting the irony of being rejected for being different despite being the same person inside.


In conclusion, The Metamorphosis is a powerful and thought-provoking story that explores identity, isolation, and human nature themes. Kafka’s haunting tale is a commentary on the dehumanization of those who are different or marginalized and highlights the importance of empathy and compassion in human relationships.

Through the character of Gregor Samsa, the story raises questions about what it means to be human and the effects of isolation on the psyche. The Metamorphosis is a timeless work of literature that continues to be relevant and impactful today.

Suggested Readings

Analysis of “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Analysis of “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” by Gabriel García Márquez

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